Illinois State University Mathematics Department

MAT 223: Introduction to Secondary Mathematics Teaching

Dr. Roger Day (

Citing Your References

When you submit any assignment that requires you to formally cite your references, please follow the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines. You can easily follow those guidelines by mimicking references that appear in recent issues of the Mathematics Teacher, official journal of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The Mathematics Teacher can be found in Milner Library as well as in the Mathematics Department Resource Lab (STV 302).

Here are examples of some of the more frequently cited types of reference sources. Please note these particular aspects within the citations:

  • author list in multiple-author citations (2,3,4,9)
  • punctuation (all)
  • title enclosed in quote marks (1,2,5,6,8,10,11)
  • title or source in italics (1-7,9)
  • use of abbreviations (2,3,4,5,9,10,11)
  • online reference (7)

1. journal article, single author, paginated by volume

Kazemi, Elham. "Discourse That Promotes Conceptual Understanding." Teaching Children Mathematics 4 (March 1998): 410-14.

2. journal article, multiple authors, paginated by issue (number)

Zbiek, Rose Mary, and M. Kathleen Heid. "The Skateboard Experiment: Mathematical Modeling for Beginning Algebra." Computing Teacher 18, no. 2 (1990): 32-36.

3. entire book, multiple authors, no editor

Hamilton, Johnny E., and Margaret S. Hamilton. Math to Build On: A Book for Those Who Build. Clinton, N.C.: Constructions Trade Press, 1993.

4. entire book, multiple editors

Reys, Robert E., and Nobuhiko, Nohda, eds. Computational Alternatives for the Twenty-first Century: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from Japan and the United States. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1994.

5. chapter in edited book, single author

Carlson, Marilyn P. "A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Development of the Function Concept." In Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education 3, edited by Alan H. Schoenfeld, Jim Kaput, and Ed Dubinsky, pp. 114-62. Washington D.C.: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1998.

6. newspaper article, no author

"Everyone Wants a Shot at Being a Millionaire." USA Today, 16 August 2000, sec. D, pp. 1D-2D.

7. online report, corporate author

Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. CBMS Mathematical Education of Teachers Project Draft Report. Washington, D.C.: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, March 2000. Available on the web at

8. paper presentation

Groves, Susie. "Calculators: A Learning Environment to Promote Number Sense." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April 1994.

9. ERIC document

Behr, Merlyn, Stanley Erlwanger, and Eugene Nichols. How Children View Equality Sentences. PMDC Technical Report no. 3. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State University, 1976. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED144802).

10. dissertation via abstract

Yates, Billy Charles. "The Computer as an Instructional Aid and Problem Solving Tool: An Experimental Analysis of Two Instructional Methods for Teaching Spatial Skills to Junior High School Students." (Doctoral diss., University of Oregon.) Dissertation Abstracts International 49 (1988): 3612-A. (University Microfilms no. DA8903857).

11. dissertation

Maria, Monique Agnes. "Understanding of Variables and Their Uses Acquired by Students in Traditional and Computer-Intensive Mathematics." Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland College Park, 1990.