**Using History in Math Class**

The purpose of this Web site is to encourage and facilitate the use of the history of mathematics in the teaching and learning of mathematics at all levels. Gerald L. Marshall marshall@math.ilstu.edu created it as a Ph.D. project under the guidance on his mentor Dr. Beverly S. Rich bsrich@math.ilstu.edu during the spring of 1999. Any questions or comments on this site should be addressed to them using the e-mail links above.

Some of the most useful Internet sites on the history of mathematics that provide assistance for the inclusion of history in the mathematics classroom are identified, described, and hyperlinked via relevant URLs below. These sites have been tentatively divided into five broad categories. Some sites may fall in more than one category. However each site appears in what seemed to be the most relevant category.

**INSTRUCTIONAL**

Using history in mathematics classes helps to increase motivation for learning. This category includes sites that promote the use of history in mathdmatics classes, sites that provide examples where this concept has been applied, and sites that post bibliographies and additional links that allow for extended research. A teacher can find samples of classroom proved projects here.

http://www.maa.org/news/ihmt99.html

An online report on the **Institute on the History of Mathematics and
Its Use in Teaching, 1999 edition **may be found on the** **on the
Web server at the Mathematical Association of America. Fernando Q. Gouvea
hosts it.

http://www.aug.edu/dvskel/welcome.html

**Mathematical Connections, **an on-line publication on the history
and philosophy of mathematics, presents applications of history of mathematics
in the classroom. Keith Luoma at Augusta State University manages it. Of
particular import are the articles by Mary Garner and Karen Dee Michalowicz.
In one of these there is a list of fifteen reasons for using history in
mathematics education.

http://www.isoc.org/isoc/whatis/conferences/inet/96/proceedings/c7/c7_3.htm

**The Moldy Oldies: Life Stories of Mathematicians by and for Kids **posted
by Kathy Heller at College Station gives a collection of Web pages developed
by her 4th graders. They provide excellent examples of how research, history,
and mathematics can be interconnected even in the lower grades.

http://math.nmsu.edu/~history/

**Teaching with Original Historical Sources in Mathematics** managed
by David Pengelley at New Mexico State University offers experiences and
materials from using original historical sources in teaching mathematics.
It contains articles on and about history of mathematics and its role in
teaching.

http://www.nsm.iup.edu/ma/gsstoudt/history/ma350/sources_home.html

**Using Original Sources in a History of Mathematics Class** contains
a reading list and a collection of discussion questions and homework problems
for using original sources in a history of mathematics class. Gary Stoudt,
who has participated in the Institute on History of Mathematics and Its
Use in Teaching, maintains it at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

http://www.math.cornell.edu/~library/collectedwks.html

**The Collected Works: Index** on the Web server at Cornell University
since 1996 provides an extensive bibliography of collected works and correspondence
of mathematicians. Steven Rockey developed it over many years while working
as a mathematics librarian. The items are assessed by authorís name
on the Index page.

**BIOGRAPHICAL**

One way to humanize mathematics is to share biographical facts with students. A better way is to have them do biographical research. This division identifies and describes only a few of the many wonderful sites on the Internet that provide biographies of mathematicians. It includes sites that have pictures or portraits and that list mathematicians alphabetically or by ethnic origin or by geographical location. An instructor can quickly find anecdotes on notable mathematicians to share.

http://www.siue.edu/~dcollin/mathfame.html

In the **Hall of Great Mathematicians **maintained by David Collins,
Jr. at Southern Illinois University, one finds an alphabetical list of famous
mathematicians with short biographies.

http://euler.ciens.ucv.ve/English/mathematics/

**Some Famous Mathematicians** may be found at the Central University
of Venezuela. It provides information on about 20 people and is hosted by
Alexander Velasquez.

http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/past-women-math.html

**Past Notable Women of Mathematics **posted by Elizabeth Mary Freeman
of Yale University contains historical data on women in computing and mathematics.

http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/women.htm

The **Biographies of Women Mathematicians **has a large collection
of biographies on female mathematicians arranged in both alphabetical and
chronological order. Larry Riddle at Agnes Scott College is its manager.
It illustrates the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics.

http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/mad0.html

**Mathematicians of the African Diaspora **highlights the accomplishments
of the peoples of Africa and the African Diaspora in the mathematical sciences.
This encyclopedia of the connection between Blacks and mathematics is hosted
by Scott Williams of the State University of New York at Buffalo. It has
around 200 Web pages divided according to ancient (prior to 1700) and modern
history of mathematics.

http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/

**Portraits of Statisticians** contains an alphabetical presentation
of over 200 statisticians including pictures. It is located at the University
of York, England and kept up by Peter Lee.

**CHRONOLOGICAL**

A historical development can help to provide order to the presentation of mathematical ideas in the curriculum. This section identifies some Internet sites that list mathematicians by dates, sites that provide timelines, and sites that give information on the first use of a mathematical term or symbol. The classroom teacher can devise homework exercises that incorporate problems from historical texts.

http://ftp.math.utah.edu/history/index.html

The** History of Mathematics** at the University of Utah presents
a limited number of mathematicians in both an alphabetical and chronological
fashion.

http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/mathhist.html

The **History of Mathematics Home Page** maintained by David Joyce
at Clark University provides valuable information on mathematicians arranged
chronologically and by the following regions: Europe, Greece, Japan, China,
Arab Sphere, India, Egypt, and Babylonia. It also contains data by subjects
and timelines.

http://metalab.unc.edu/expo/vatican.exhibit/exhibit/d-mathematics/Mathematics.html

**Mathematics: Ancient Science and Its Modern Fates** maintained by
Frans van Hoesel presents exhibitions donated by the Library of Congress
on the mathematics and astronomy of the Greeks.

http://forum.swarthmore.edu/%7Ejudyann/calendar/

The **Mathematician's Birthday Calendar** was first created by 8th
grade students to earn extra credit. Judy Ann Brown maintains it at The
Math Forum.

http://nunic.nu.edu/~frosamon/history/math.html

**Welcome to a Mathematical Journey Through Time** is maintained by
Frances Rosamond at the National University. It provides an interactive
timeline from 3000 BC to the present and beyond.

**TOPICAL**

A person's understanding of a concept is improved when he/she knows how it has developed over time. This category includes sites that develop mathematical subjects, historical topics, and famous curves. An instructor can provide historical introductions to concepts that are new to their pupils.

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/

**The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive** is the preeminent
site on the World Wide Web for information on the history of mathematics.
It probably contains as much information as all the rest combined. It has
1300 biographies, 60 famous curves, 30 history topics, chronologies, birthplace
maps, and posters. John OíConner maintains this site at the University
of St. Andrews in Scotland.

http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/Catalog/catalog.html

Richard Westfall (deceased) formerly at Indiana University in Bloomington
developed The **Catalog of the Scientific Community**. It presents a
collection of 631 detailed biographies on members of the scientific community
(164 are mathematicians) during the 16th and 17th centuries.

http://members.aol.com/jeff570/mathsym.html

**Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols** identifies the names
of individuals who first used various common mathematical symbols and the
dates the symbols were first used. Jeff Miller at Gulf High School in New
Port Richey, FL hosts it.

http://archives.math.utk.edu/topics/history.html

**Mathematics Archives -Topics in Mathematics - History of Mathematics**
has organized Internet access to a wide variety of mathematical resources
including materials that are used in the teaching of mathematics. Earl Fife
supports it at the University of Tennessee.

http://www.math.sfu.ca/histmath/

**History of Mathematics** has a limited number of pages on mathematicians
from Europe, China, India, and Egypt. It also includes a section on special
topics. Len Berggren at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada hosts
it.

http://www.nwosu.edu/math/links.htm#History

**NWOSU Math History Bibliography** is an annotated bibliography of
mathematics history Web pages. Sheila Brintnall at Northwestern Oklahoma
State University provides upkeep for this site.

**INFORMATIONAL**

By exploring the history of mathematics, a pupil can increase his or her excitement and interest in mathematics. This catchall category contains locations with abstracts, informal notes, and on-line discussions and courses. A teacher should encourage the creation of posters and papers that have an historical theme.

http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/

David Wilkins at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland hosts The **History
of Mathematics** site. It contains an archive of biographies of 17th and
18th century mathematicians and various mathematical papers.

http://www.math-net.de/links/show?collection=math

**MathNet Links **has provided Internet information services for mathematicians
since 1996. It provides a virtual forum for scholarly discussion of the
history of mathematics. Vincent Winczewski moderates it at Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum
fur Informationstechnik (ZIB) in Berlin, Germany.

http://www.seanet.com/~ksbrown/ihistory.htm

**Math Pages: History of Mathematics** provides some informative notes
on the history of mathematics. Kevin Brown posted it on the Web.

http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/bshm/

**British Society History of Mathematics Home Page** contains some
50 pages written by prominent British academics working in the history of
mathematics. It includes abstracts and other resources. Eleanor Robson maintains
it for the BSHM.

http://forum.swarthmore.edu/library/topics/history/branch.html

**The Math Forum Internet Mathematics Library - Math Topics - History/Biography
**located at Swarthmore College houses a large collection of articles
of general interest to students of the history of mathematics that are presented
in a compact outline form that is easily browsed.

http://www.gnacademy.org/cgibin/frontpage.cgi

**Globewide Network Academy** has an online distance education catalog
that currently lists more than 200,000 courses and programs. A search for
"history of mathematics" identifies 5 courses at 5 accredited
universities in the United States.

Lasted updated on October 2, 2000.